Jalisco, Querétaro, Nuevo León, Guanajuato, Mexico City, Monterrey, and Yucatán, where they have the greatest presence, although 85.4% work in a subordinate and paid manner.
Industry 4.0 will be the foundation of the economy in the future; however, women have little presence, despite the fact that their growth is being encouraged, in areas such as the Bajío. Most of these women hold corporate positions as employees rather than as managerial or leader positions in their own organization.
According to Inegi estimates presented in September, in Mexico there are almost 976,000 people trained in the areas of computer science and information and communication technologies (ICTs), of which 68% are men and 32% women, although only 760,000 people belong to the economically active population; 72% men and 28% women.
Likewise, 66.8% work for companies and businesses, 18.6% in general public institutions, and 14.6% in the household sector informally. Meanwhile, 85.4% of women work in a subordinate and paid manner, mainly in Mexico City (3.2%), Nuevo León (2.2%), Querétaro (2%), Aguascalientes (1.6%), Jalisco (1.6%), Sinaloa (1.5%) and Quintana Roo (1.4 percent).
In a talk with El Economista, Graciela Rojas, president and founder of Movimiento STEAM, explained that, at the national level, patents by women are few, since professionals in the sector work more in corporate and mainly in lesser positions.
There are more women in corporations, but more leaders are required, either in managerial positions or with their own project. Companies that have women in managerial levels obtain 54% more profits ”, mentioned Rojas.
Juan Carlos Ostolaza, director of institutional relations at the Mexican Competitiveness Center, agreed on this and stated that the impact is not only for companies but the world. If women increase in Industry 4.0, it would add $ 28 billion to global GDP by 2025, according to data from the McKinsey Global Institute.
The specialists stated that the female presence in industry 4.0 varies throughout the country, although there are states that mainly stand out in the Bajío: Jalisco, Querétaro, Nuevo León, Guanajuato, although Mexico City and Yucatán also stand out, states that are having significant growth of women in the sector, due to the policies implemented by the states to empower the industry and female talent, which from school promote programs focused on innovation. The problem is in the southeast where the presence is lower, says Ostolaza.
Another point that these entities add is the entrepreneurship centers and Innovation Secretariats, such as Jalisco, whose objective is to insert the state into the economy of the future, through the promotion of innovation, science, technology, and higher education, regardless of gender.
Querétaro has also worked on issues of innovation and promotion of industry 4.0, which at the moment positions it as a benchmark that guarantees good economic development and security for investors.
Change since childhood
Beyond the strategies that the states design, the real problem begins with education.
Rojas indicated that only 31% of women who study decide on a career in science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (STEAM), of which only 3% specialize in ICT, 5% in statistics and mathematics, 8% engineering and construction, and 15% in health and wellness.
Before the age of 11 or 12, interest in these subjects is high, but afterward, the figure decreases exponentially, derived from the cultural context and stigmas. In states where there is a greater presence of women in the industry, the rapprochement is greatly promoted, it is part of daily life, and girls are better approached, although there is still work to be done.
Women are more socially accepted if we are bad at STEAM subjects, it is something of the Latin American culture that we must change so that girls are inspired to continue on this path ”.
Currently, 38% of women study STEAM as opposed to 54% of men. If inequality is eliminated, it would generate an increase in Mexican scientific productivity of between 17% and 20 percent.
Another problem is that although the presence of women must be increased, the wage gap must be closed. If this continues, it would be broken in 70 years.